Dr. Schmidt is a mass spectrometrist with over 30 years experience in separations, quantitative methods and pharmacokinetics. At the University of Iowa, he performed work that was foundational in the approval of novel antimalarial drugs and optimized quantitative NAD metabolomics for the first human clinical study of NR.





Dr. Brenner is the discoverer of the eukaryotic nicotinamide riboside (NR) kinase pathway to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). He combines a deep understanding of human metabolism with advanced techniques in enzymology, genetics, genomics, high throughput screening, and quantitative mass spectrometry. He earned his PhD at Stanford and did post-doctoral work at Brandeis before holding faculty positions at Jefferson, Dartmouth and Iowa. He serves as the Roy J. Carver Chair and Head of Biochemistry and Professor of Internal Medicine, and is a Founding Director of the University of Iowa Obesity Research & Education Initiative. 

  1. ​​​​​P. Bieganowski, H.C. Pace & C. Brenner, "Eukaryotic NAD+ Synthetase Qns1 Contains an Essential, Obligate Intramolecular Thiol Glutamine Amidotransferase Domain Related to Nitrilase," J Biol Chem, v. 278, pp. 33049-33055 (2003). 
  2. P. Bieganowski & C. Brenner, "The Reported Human NADsyn2 is Ammonia-Dependent NAD+ synthetase from a Pseudomonad," J Biol Chem, v. 278, pp. 33056-33059 (2003). 
  3. D.A. Kwasnicka, A. Krakowiak, C. Thacker, C. Brenner & S.R. Vincent, " Coordinate Expression of NADPH-Dependent Flavin Reductase, FRE-1, and Hint-Related 7meGMP-Directed Hydrolase, DCS-1," J Biol Chem, v. 278, pp. 39051-39058 (2003). 
  4. P. Bieganowski & C. Brenner, "Discoveries of Nicotinamide Riboside as a Nutrient and Conserved NRK Genes Establish a Preiss-Handler Independent Route to NAD+ in Fungi and Humans," Cell, v. 117, pp. 495-502 (2004). 
  5. C. Brenner, "Evolution of NAD Biosynthetic Enzymes," Structure, v. 13, pp. 1239-1240 (2005). 
  6. P. Bieganowski, H.F. Seidle, M. Wojcik & C. Brenner, "Synthetic Lethal and Biochemical Analyses of NAD and NADH Kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Establish Separation of Cellular Functions," J Biol Chem, v. 281, pp. 22439-22445 (2006). 
  7. M. Wojcik, H.F. Seidle, P. Bieganowski & C. Brenner, "Glutamine-Dependent NAD+ synthetase: How a Two-Domain, Three-Substrate Enzyme Avoids Waste," J Biol Chem, v. 281, pp. 33395-33402 (2006). 
  8. P. Belenky, K.L. Bogan & C. Brenner, "NAD+ Metabolism in Health and Disease," Trends in Biochemical Sciences, v. 32, pp. 12-19 (2007). 
  9. P. Belenky, F.G. Racette, K.L. Bogan, J.M. McClure, J.S. Smith & C. Brenner, "Nicotinamide Riboside Promotes Sir2 Silencing and Extends Lifespan via Nrk and Urh1/Pnp1/Meu1 Pathways to NAD+," Cell, v. 129, pp. 473-484 (2007). 
  10. W. Tempel, W.M. Rabeh, K.L. Bogan, P. Belenky, M. Wojcik, H.F. Seidle, L. Nedyalkova, T. Yang, A.A. Sauve, H.-W. Park & C. Brenner, "Nicotinamide Riboside Kinase Structures Reveal New Pathways to NAD+," PLoS Biology, v. 5, issue 10, e263 (2007). 
  11. P.A. Belenky, T.G. Mogu & C. Brenner, "S. cerevisiae YOR071C Encodes the High Affinity Nicotinamide Riboside Transporter, Nrt1," J Biol Chem, v. 283, pp. 8075-8079 (2008).
  12. K.L. Bogan & C. Brenner, "Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide, and Nicotinamide Riboside: A Molecular Evaluation of NAD+ Precursor Vitamins in Human Nutrition," Ann Review Nutrition, v. 28, pp. 115-130 (2008).
  13. P. Belenky, K.C. Christensen, F. Gazzaniga, A.A. Pletnev & C. Brenner, "Nicotinamide Riboside and Nicotinic Acid Riboside Salvage in Fungi and Mammals: Quantitative Basis for Urh1 and Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Function in NAD+ Metabolism," J Biol Chem, v. 284, pp. 158-164 (2009). 
  14. P. Bieganowski & C. Brenner, "Nicotinamide Riboside Kinase Compositions and Methods for Using the Same," Australian Patent 2005211773, issued June 1, 2009. 
  15. F. Gazzaniga, R. Stebbins, S. Z. Chang, M.A. McPeek & C.Brenner, "Microbial NAD Metabolism: Lessons from Comparative Genomics, "Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, v. 73, pp. 529-541 (2009).
  16. K.L. Bogan, C. Evans, P. Belenky, P. Song, C.F. Burant, R.T. Kennedy & C. Brenner, " Identification of Isn1 and Sdt1 as Glucose and Vitamin-regulated NMN and NaMN 5'-nucleotidases Responsible for Production of Nicotinamide Riboside and Nicotinic Acid Riboside," J Biol Chem, v. 284, pp. 34861-34869 (2009).
  17. C. Evans, K.L. Bogan, P. Song, C.F. Burant, R.T. Kennedy & C. Brenner, "NAD+ Metabolite Levels as a Function of Vitamins and Calorie Restriction: Evidence for Different Mechanisms of Longevity," BMC Chem Biol, v. 10, 2 (2010).
  18. K.L. Bogan & C. Brenner, "5'-Nucleotidases and their New Roles in NAD+ and Phosphate Metabolism," New Journal of Chemistry, v. 34, pp. 845-853 (2010). 
  19. C. Brenner. "On the Nonspecific Degradation of NAD+ to Nicotinamide Riboside," JBC, v. 286, p. le5 (2011).
  20. P. Belenky, R. Stebbins, K.L. Bogan, C.R. Evans & C. Brenner, "Nrt1 and Tna1-Independent Export of NAD+ Precursor Vitamins Promotes NAD+ Homeostasis and Allows Engineering of Vitamin Production," PLoS ONE, v. 6, p. e19710 (2011). 
  21. C. Brenner, P. Belenky & K.L. Bogan, "Yeast Strain and Method for Using the Same to Produce Nicotinamide Riboside," US Patent 8,114,626, issued February 14, 2012. 
  22. R.R. Midtkandal, P. Redpath, S.A.J. Trammell, S.J.F. Macdonald, C. Brenner & M.E. Migaud, "Novel synthetic route to the C-nucleoside, 2-deoxy benzamide riboside," Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters v. 22, pp. 5204-7 (2012). 
  23. C. Brenner, "Nicotinamide riboside kinase compositions and methods for using the same," US Patent8,197,807, issued June 12, 2012.
  24. C. Brenner, "Nicotinamide riboside kinase compositions and methods for using the same," US Patent8,383,086, issued February 26, 2013. 
  25. K.L. Bogan & C. Brenner, "Biochemistry: Niacin/NAD(P)," Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, W.J. Lennarz & M.D. Lane, eds., v. 3, pp.172-178, (2013), Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
  26. S.A.J. Trammell & C. Brenner, "Targeted, LCMC-Based Metabolomics for Quantitative Measurement of NAD+ Metabolites," Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, v. 4, e201301012 (2013). DOI: 10.5936/csbj.201301012. 
  27. S. Ghanta, R.E. Grossmann & C. Brenner, "Mitochondrial protein acetylation as a cell-intrinsic, evolutionary driver of fat storage: chemical and metabolic logic of acetyl-lysine modifications"  Critical Rev Biochem & Mol Biol, v. 48, pp. 561-574 (2013).   
  28. S-C. Mei & C. Brenner, “NAD as a Genotype-Specific Drug Target” Chemistry & Biology, v. 20, pp. 1307-1308 (2013). 
  29. C. Brenner, “Metabolism: Targeting a fat-accumulation gene” Nature, v. 508, pp. 194-195 (2014). DOI: 10.1038/508194a.   
  30. S.-C. Mei & C. Brenner, "Quantification of Protein Copy Number in Yeast: the NAD+ Metabolome," PLoS Onev. 9, e106496 (2014). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106496. 
  31. C. Brenner, “Boosting NAD to Spare Hearing,” Cell Metabolism, v. 21, pp.926-927 (2014). DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.11.015.
  32. S.-C. Mei & C. Brenner, "Calorie Restriction-Mediated Replicative Lifespan Extension in Yeast Is Non-Cell Autonomous," PLoS Biology, v. 13, e1002048 (2015).
  33. S.A.J. Trammell & C. Brenner, “NNMT: A Bad Actor in Fat Makes Good in Liver,” Cell Metabolism, v. 22, pp. 200-201 (2015). DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2015.07.017.
  • We provide service metabolomics to academic and commercial laboratories in support of preclinical and clinical research, quality control, and food security.
  • We are commercializing a novel technology to monitor effective NAD supplementation with NR.
  • We aim to discover and exploit biomarkers to enable personalized nutrition and precision medicine.